sabato 7 marzo 2015

Ultimate on FORGERY

Questo è l'ultimo dei miei articoli al riguardo del tema dei falsi (a meno che non succeda qualche cosa di eccezionalmente meritevole di nota: ma certamente non lo auspico) . Lo ho trovato su due pagine differenti di Wiki e sembrandomi abbastanza completo e conclusivo, lo ho copiato e postato. Lo lascio in Inglese, tanto elenca e compendia molti temi che ho già trattato per esteso ed in dettaglio in passato. 
Outline of forgery
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to forgery:
Forgery – process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.


Most archaeological forgeries are made for reasons similar to art forgeries – for financial gain. The monetary value of an item that is thought to be thousands of years old is higher than if the item were sold as a souvenir.
However, archaeological or paleontological forgers may have other motives; they may try to manufacture proof for their point of view or favorite theory (or against a point of view/theory they dislike), or to gain increased fame and prestige for themselves. If the intention is to create "proof" for religious history, it is pious fraud.

Types of forgery
·         Archaeological forgery
·         Art forgery
·         Black propaganda — false information and material that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side
·         Counterfeiting
·         Counterfeit money — types of counterfeit coin include the cliché forgery, the fourrée and the slug
·         Counterfeit consumer goods
·         Counterfeit medication
·         Counterfeit watches
·         Unapproved aircraft parts
·         Watered stock
·         False documents
·         Forgery as covert operation
·         Identity document forgery
·         Fake passport
·         Literary forgery
·         Fake memoirs
·         Pseudopigraphy — the false attribution of a work, not always as an act of forgery
·         Musical forgery — music allegedly written by composers of past eras, but actually composed later by someone else
·         Philatelic forgery — fake stamps produced to defraud stamp collecters
·         Signature forgery
Legality of forgery
United Kingdom
·         Forgery of Foreign Bills Act 1803    
·         Forgery Act 1830
·         Forgery Act 1837
·         Forgery Act 1861
·         Forgery Act 1870
·         Forgery Act 1913
Related offences
·         Phishing — impersonating a reputable organization via electronic media, which often involves creating a replica of a trustworthy website
·         Uttering — knowingly passing on a forgery with the intent to defraud
Detection and prevention of forgery
Anti-counterfeiting agencies and organisations
·         Applied DNA Sciences — an American company that develops DNA-based technology to help identify counterfeit goods
·         Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group — an international group of central banks that investigates emerging threats to the security of banknotes
·         Counterfeit Coin Bulletin — a now-defunct publication of the American Numismatic Association
·         International Federation of Spirits Producers — the trade association for the worldwide spirit industry's protection against counterfeit produce
·         Philatelic Foundation — a major source of authentication of rare and valuable postage stamps
·         United States Secret Service — the agency responsible for the prevention and investigation of counterfeit U.S. currency
·         Verified-Accredited Wholesale Distributors — a program that offers an accreditation to wholesale pharmaceutical distribution facilities
Tools and techniques
·         Counterfeit banknote detection pen — uses an iodine-based ink that reacts with the starch found in counterfeit banknotes
·         EURion constellation — a pattern of symbols incorporated into banknote designs, which can be detected by imaging software
·         Geometric lathe — a 19th-century lathe used for making ornamental patterns on the plates used in printing bank notes and stamps
·         Microprinting - very small text hidden on banknotes or cheques, that is difficult to accurately reproduce
·         Optical variable device — an iridescent image that cannot be photocopied or scanned
·         Optically variable ink — ink that appears to change colour depending on the angle it is viewed from
·         Philatelic expertisation — the process whereby an expert is asked to give an opinion whether a philatelic item is genuine
·         Questioned document examination — a forensic science discipline that attempts to answer questions about disputed documents
·         Security printing — the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes and identity documents
·         Security thread — a thin ribbon threaded through a banknote, that appears as a solid line when held up to the light
·         Taggant — a radio frequency microchip that can be tracked and identified
·         Watermark — a recognizable image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness when viewed
Examples of forgery
Archaeological forgery
·         Acámbaro figures — over 32,000 ceramic figurines which appear to provide evidence for the co-existence of dinosaurs and humans
·         Archaeoraptor — the supposed "missing link" between birds and terapod dinosaurs; actually constructed by rearranging pieces of genuine fossils
·         AVM Runestone — a student prank that was believed to be an ancient Norse runestone
·         Beringer's Lying Stones — fake fossils that were planted as an 18th-century prank
·         Brandenburg stone — a stone slab bearing markings which appear to be letters of an unknown alphabet
·         Calaveras Skull — a human skull that was thought to prove the existence of Pliocene-age man in North America
·         Cardiff Giant — a ten-foot tall "petrified man" carved out of gypsum
·         Chiemsee Cauldron — a golden cauldron found at the bottom of a lake
·         Crystal skull — a series of artifacts crafted from quartz, often attributed to Aztec or Mayan civilisations
·         Drake's Plate of Brass — supposedly a brass plaque planted by Francis Drake upon arrival in America, but really a practical joke that span out of control
·         Grave Creek Stone — a small sandstone disk inscribed with twenty-five pseudo-alphabetical characters
·         Holly Oak gorget — a mammoth engraved upon a shell pendent
·         Ica stones — a collection of andesite stones that depict dinosaurs co-existing with humans
·         Japanese Paleolithic hoax — a number of paeolithic finds manufactured by amateur archaeologist Shinichi Fujimura to bolster his reputation
·         Kafkania pebble — a small rounded pebble bearing what could be an early example of Greek syllabic writing
·         Kinderhook plates — six bell-shaped pieces of brass with strange engravings; Latter-Day Saints founder Joseph Smith allegedly attempted to translate them
·         Lead Books of Sacromonte — a series of texts inscribed on circular lead leaves, denounced as heretical forgeries by the Vatican in 1682; modern scholars concur with this analysis
·         Lenape Stone — an engraving that appears to show Native Americans hunting a woolly mammoth
·         Michigan relics — artifacts that appear to prove that East Europeans lived in Michigan in ancient times; actually a money-making scam
·         The inscription at Pedra da Gávea — allegedly carved by Phoenicians, who were not thought to have had the naval capacity to travel across the ocean to Brazil
·         Persian Princess — the mummified body of a "Persian princess"; actually the corpse of a woman who was murdered around 1996
·         Piltdown Man — the jaw of an orangutan attached to the skull of a human, hailed as the missing link between humans and apes
·         Solid Muldoon — a "petrified human" made out of mortar, rock dust, clay, plaster, ground bones, blood and meat
·         Spirit Pond runestones — small stones bearing runic inscriptions, ostensibly of pre-Columbian origin
·         Tiara of Saitaferne — a tiara exhibited at the Louvre Museum as belonging to a Scythian king, until this statement was disputed by the goldsmith who created it
Art forgery
·         Amarna Princess — a statue created by Shaun Greenhalgh in the ancient Egyptian style, and sold to Bolton Museum for £439,767
·         Black Admiral — a Revolutionary War-era painting of a black man in a naval uniform
·         Bust of Flora — a bust of the Roman goddess Flora, previously believed to be a work by Leonardo da Vinci, now attributed to Richard Cockle Lucas.
·         Camille Corot forgeries — thousands of imitation Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot paintings
·         Eadred Reliquary — a silver vessel created by Shaun Greenhalgh, containing a piece of wood which he claimed was a fragment of the True Cross
·         Etruscan terracotta warriors — three terracotta warriors created by Italian forgers and sold to the Metropolitan Museum of Art
·         The Faun — a sculpture created by Shaun Greenhalgh and sold as a work by Paul Gauguin
·         Flower portrait — a portrait of William Shakespeare, probably painted in the 19th century
·         Michelangelo's Cupid — a sleeping Cupid sculpture that was created, artificially aged and sold by Renaissance artist Michelangelo
·         Risley Park Lanx — the replica of a genuine Roman artifact, "discovered" by the Greenhalgh family and put on display at the British Museum
·         Rospigliosi Cup — a gold and enamel cup thought to have been crafted by Italian goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini, but now considered a 19th-century forgery
·         The works of the Spanish Forger — an unidentified 19th-century artist who created over 200 medieval miniatures, which are still highly valued by collectors
Black propaganda
·         The Franklin Prophecy — an anti-Semitic speech falsely attributed to Benjamin Franklin, arguing against the admittance of Jewish immigrants to the newly formed United States
·         Morey letter — a letter published during the 1880 US presidential elections, suggesting that James A. Garfield was in favour of Chinese immigration
·         Our Race Will Rule Undisputed Over The World — a speech given by the non-existent Rabbi Emanuel Rabinovich, outlining Jewish plans for world domination
·         A Protocol of 1919 — a document supposedly found among the belongings of a Jew killed in battle, outlining Jewish plans for world domination
·         The Protocols of the Elders of Zion — a lengthy text, originating in Russia and widely publicised by the Nazi party, outlining Jewish plans for world domination
·         A Radical Program for the Twentieth Century — a text supposedly written by a British Jewish Communist, cited as proof that the civil rights movement in America was a foreign Communist plot
·         Tanaka Memorial — an alleged Japanese strategic planning document, advising Emperor Hirohito on how to conquer the world
·         2012 Pakistan fake medicine crisis — a batch of counterfeit medicine that killed over 100 heart patients at a hospital in Punjab
·         Counterfeit United States currency — some notable examples of counterfeit operations
·         Fake Indian Currency Note — fake currency in circulation in the Indian economy
·         Operation Bernhard — a Nazi plot to destabilise the British economy by dropping counterfeit notes out of aircraft
·         Superdollar — a very high-quality counterfeit United States hundred dollar bill
·         Partnair Flight 394 — a chartered flight that crashed in 1989, killing all 55 people on board; it was caused by counterfeit aircraft parts
·         Unauthorized Apple Stores in China — twenty-two unauthorised Apple Stores discovered in Kunming
Forged documents
·         Canuck letter — a letter implying that a Democratic presidential candidate was prejudiced against French-Canadians
·         Casket letters — letters and sonnets supposedly written by Mary, Queen of Scots, implicating her in the murder of her husband
·         Donation of Constantine — a decree issued by emperor Constantine I, granting authority over Rome and part of the Roman Empire to Pope Sylvester I and his successors
·         Dossiers Secrets — documents, planted in the National Library of France, that were used as the basis for a series of BBC documentaries
·         Habbush letter — a letter linking Saddam Hussein to al-Qaeda and the 9/11 attacks
·         Killian documents — memos critical of President George W. Bush's service in the National Guard
·         Larmenius Charter — a Latin manuscript listing twenty-two successive Grand Masters of the Knights Templar
·         Lindsay pamphlet scandal — pamphlets distributed by the Australian Liberal Party, claiming an alliance between the Labor Party and an Islamic organisation
·         Mustafa-letter — a letter used by Norway's Liberal Party to prove that the country was in danger of being overrun with Muslims
·         Niger uranium forgeries — documents implying that Saddam Hussein had attempted to purchase yellowcake uranium powder, allegedly for the purpose of building weapons of mass destruction
·         Oath of a Freeman — a copy of the loyalty oath drawn up by 17th century Pilgrims
·         Privilegium Maius — a medieval manuscript apparently boosting the legitimacy and influence of the House of Habsburg
·         Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals — letters and canons purportedly authored by early popes, including a collection authored by "Benedict Levita".
·         William Lynch speech — a speech by an 18th-century slave owner, who claims to have discovered the secret of controlling slaves by pitting them against each other
·         Zeno map — a map of the North Atlantic containing a number of non-existent islands
·         Zinoviev letter — a directive from Moscow to Britain's Communist Party, calling for intensified communist agitation; the letter contributed to the downfall of Prime Minister MacDonald
Literary forgery
·         The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ — a religious text supposedly transcribed from the Akashic records
·         The Archko Volume — a series of supposedly contemporary reports relating to the life and death of Jesus
·         Autobiography of Howard Hughes — an "autobiography" of reclusive eccentric Howard Hughes, written without his knowledge or consent
·         Book of Jasher — an alternative account of the Old Testament narrative
·         Book of Veles — a set of Slavic texts written on wooden planks
·         Centrum Naturae Concentratum — a 17th-century alchemical text
·         Christine — a compilation of letters purportedly written by an English girl studying in Germany in 1914, prior to the outbreak of war
·         Chronicle of Huru — supposedly an official chronicle of the medieval Moldavian court
·         Chronicon of Pseudo-Dexter — a 15th-century account of the Church's activities in Spain, attributed to Flavius Dexter
·         De Situ Britanniae — an 18th-century forgery represented as a Roman account of ancient Britain
·         Epistle to the Alexandrians — an unknown text derided as a forgery in a 7th-century manuscript
·         Epistle to the Laodiceans — a lost letter of Saint Paul, often "rediscovered" by forgers
·         Essene Gospel of Peace — a text which claims, among other things, that Jesus was a vegetarian
·         Gospel of Josephus — a forgery created to raise publicity for a novel
·         Historias de la Conquista del Mayab — a Mexican manuscript supposedly written by an 18th-century monk
·         History of the Captivity in Babylon — an ostensibly Old Testament text elaborating on the Book of Jeremiah
·         Hitler Diaries — a set of volumes purported to be the diaries of Adolf Hitler, serialised in the German magazine Stern and the British Sunday Times
·         Ireland Shakespeare forgeries — forged correspondence between Shakespeare and his contemporaries, and a "lost play" entitled Vortigern and Rowena
·         Jack the Ripper Diary — the forged diary of Victorian merchant James Maybrick, apparently revealing him to be Jack the Ripper
·         Letter of Benan — the letter of an Egyptian physician describing his encounters with Jesus
·         Letter to an Anti-Zionist Friend — a letter in support of Zionism, attributed to Martin Luther King, Jr.
·         The Lost Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles — the "missing" 29th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles
·         Memoirs Of Mr. Hempher, The British Spy To The Middle East — a document purporting to be the account of an 18th-century secret agent, describing his role in founding the Islamic reform movement of Wahhabism
·         Manuscripts of Dvůr Králové and of Zelená Hora — fraudulent Slavic manuscripts created in the early 19th century
·         Minuscule 2427 — a minuscule manuscript of the Gospel of Mark
·         Mussolini diaries — several forged diaries supposedly written by the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini
·         My Sister and I — an apparently autobiographical work attributed to the philosopher Nietzsche, containing a probably fictional account of his incestuous relationship with his sister
·         Oahspe: A New Bible — a New Age bible written by an American dentist
·         Ossianic poems — a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson, attributed to the legendary Ossian
·         Roxburghe Ballads — over a thousand 17th century ballads published by John Payne Collier, some of which he had written himself
·         Salamander Letter — a document which offers an alternative account of Joseph Smith's finding of the Book of Mormon.
·         Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses — a magical text supposedly written by Moses, providing instructions on how to perform the miracles portrayed in the Bible
·         The Songs of Bilitis — a collection of erotic poetry allegedly found on the walls of a tomb in Cyprus
·         Supplements to the Satyricon — several forged versions of the Latin novel Satyricon
·         Talmud Jmmanuel — a supposedly ancient Aramaic text suggesting an extraterrestrial origin for the Bible
·         The Zohar — a primary text of medieval Kabbalah, written by a 16th-century Spanish Rabbi but attributed to Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai, an ancient sage of the Second Temple period
Musical forgery
·         Adélaïde Concerto — a violin concerto attributed to Mozart
Philatelic forgery
·         Russian philatelic forgeries — some examples of notable Russian stamp forgeries
·         Stock Exchange Forgery 1872-73 — a fraud perpetrated by telegraph clerks at the London Stock Exchange
·         Turner Collection of Forgeries — a collection of forged postage stamps on display at the British Library
Forgery controversies
The authenticity of certain documents and artifacts has not yet been determined, and is still the subject of debate.
·         Augustan History — a collection of biographies of Roman emperors
·         Bat Creek inscription — an inscription on a stone allegedly found in a Native American burial mound
·         Isleworth Mona Lisa — a close imitation of da Vinci's Mona Lisa, sometimes attributed in part to da Vinci
·         James Ossuary — a chalk box used to contain the bones of the dead, bearing the inscription "James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus"
·         Jehoash Inscription — an inscription apparently confirming the Biblical account of the repairs made to the temple in Jerusalem by Jehoash
·         Jordan Lead Codices — a series of ring-bound books of lead and copper, that are said to pre-date the writings of St. Paul
·         Kensington Runestone — a slab of greywacke covered in Scandinavian runes, found in North America and supposedly carved in the 14th century
·         Letter of Lentulus — an epistle allegedly written by a Roman Consul, giving a physical description of Jesus
·         Majestic 12 documents — supposedly leaked papers relating to the formation, in 1947, of a secret committee of US officials to investigate the Roswell incident
·         Mar Saba letter — an epistle, attributed to Clement of Alexandria, discussing the Secret Gospel of Mark
·         The Memoirs of Naim Bey — a collection of telegrams indicating that the Armenian Genocide was formally implemented as Ottoman Empire policy
·         Newark Holy Stones — a set of artifacts allegedly discovered among a group of ancient Indian burial grounds
·         Old High German lullaby — a supposedly 10th century poem containing numerous references to Germanic mythology
·         Prophecy of the Popes — a series of 112 short cryptic phrases which purport to predict future Roman Catholic Popes
·         Shroud of Turin — a linen cloth that is said to be the burial shroud of Jesus, and bears the image of a man who appears to have suffered injuries consistent with crucifixion
·         Sinaia lead plates — a set of lead plates written in an unknown language
·         Sisson documents — sixty-eight Russian documents which claim that Trotsky and Lenin were German agents attempting to bring about Russia's withdrawal from World War I
·         Stalin's alleged speech of 19 August 1939 — a speech supposedly given by Joseph Stalin in which he stated that the approaching war would benefit the Soviet Union
·         Titulus Crucis — a piece of wood, ostensibly a fragment of the True Cross upon which Jesus was crucified
·         US Army Field Manual 30-31B — a text purporting to be a classified appendix of a US Army Field Manual which describes top-secret counter-insurgency tactics
·         Vinland map — an allegedly 15th century map of the world, which could be the earliest map to depict America (or "Vinland")
Some documents and artifacts were previously thought to be forgeries, but have subsequently been determined to be genuine.
·         Bords de la Seine à Argenteuil — an oil painting by Monet
·         Glozel artifacts — over three thousand artifacts dating back to the Neolithic era, discovered in a small French hamlet
·         Lady of Elche — a stone bust believed to have been carved by the Iberians
·         Praeneste fibula — a golden brooch bearing an inscription in Old Latin
Notable forgers
Archaeological forgers
·         Charles Dawson (1864-1916) — "discoverer" of the Piltdown Man
·         Shinichi Fujimura (born 1950)
·         Oded Golan (born 1951) — accused of forging the James Ossuary, among other things; he was acquitted of these charges in March 2012
·         Islam Akhun
·         Brigido Lara
·         Moses Shapira (1830-1884)
Art forgers
·         Giovanni Bastianini (1830-1868)
·         William Blundell (born 1947)
·         Chang Dai-chien (1899-1983)
·         Yves Chaudron
·         Alceo Dossena (1878–1937)
·         John Drewe (born 1948)
·         Kenneth Fetterman
·         Alfredo Fioravanti (1886–1963)
·         Shaun Greenhalgh (born 1961) — described by the Metropolitan Police as "the most diverse art forger known in history"
·         Guy Hain
·         Eric Hebborn (1934-1996)
·         Elmyr de Hory (1905-1976) — subject of the Orson Welles documentary F for Fake
·         Geert Jan Jansen (born 1943)
·         Tom Keating (1917-1984)
·         Konrad Kujau (1938-2000) — the author of the Hitler Diaries
·         Mark A. Landis (born 1955)
·         Lothar Malskat (1913-1988)
·         Han van Meegeren (1889-1947) — estimated to have earned the equivalent of over thirty million dollars for his forgeries
·         Jacques van Meegeren (1912-1977)
·         John Myatt (born 1945)
·         Sámuel Literáti Nemes (1796–1842)
·         Edmé Samson (1810-1891)
·         Ely Sakhai (born 1952)
·         Jean-Pierre Schecroun
·         Émile Schuffenecker (1851-1934)
·         Karl Sim (born 1923)
·         David Stein (1935-1999)
·         Tony Tetro (born 1950)
·         Robert Thwaites
·         Franz Tieze (1842-1932)
·         William J. Toye (born 1931)
·         Eduardo de Valfierno — allegedly masterminded the 1911 theft of the Mona Lisa
·         Kenneth Walton (born 1967) — author of the memoir Fake: Forgery, Lies, & eBay
·         E. M. Washington (born 1962)
·         Theo van Wijngaarden (1874–1952)
·         Philip Alston (c. 1740 - after 1799)
·         Anatasios Arnaouti (born 1967)
·         Trevor Ashmore
·         Robert Baudin (1918-1983)
·         Charles Black (born 1928)
·         William Booth (c. 1778 - 1812)
·         Mary Butterworth (1686-1775)
·         William Chaloner (c. 1665 - 1699)
·         Louis Colavecchio
·         The Cragg Vale Coiners
·         Thomas Dangerfield (c. 1650 - 1685)
·         Mike DeBardeleben (1940-2011)
·         John Duff (c. 1759 - 1799)
·         Edward Emery (died c. 1850)
·         David Farnsworth
·         Bernhard Krüger (1904–1989) — director of the Nazi counterfeiting plot codenamed Operation Bernhard
·         Ignazio Lupo (1877-1947)
·         Catherine Murphy (died 1789) — the last woman to be executed by burning.
·         Emanuel Ninger (1845-1927)
·         Bernard von NotHaus — inventor of the Liberty Dollar
·         Thomas and Anne Rogers (died 1690)
·         Salomon Smolianoff (1899-1976) — WWII concentration camp detainee and key figure in Operation Bernhard
·         Samuel C. Upham (1819-1885)
·         Arthur Williams
Document forgers
·         Frank Abagnale (born 1948) — subject of the film Catch Me If You Can
·         Charles Bertram (1723 – 1765) — author of De Situ Britanniae
·         Joseph Cosey (1887 - c. 1950)
·         Przybysław Dyjamentowski (1694-1774)
·         Michael John Hamdani
·         Adolfo Kaminsky (born 1925)
·         Jean LaBanta (born c. 1879)
·         Maharaja Nandakumar (died 1775)
·         Richard Pigott (1835-1889)
·         Piligrim (died 991)
·         James Reavis (1843-1914)
·         Alves dos Reis (1898-1955)
·         Scott Reuben (born 1958)
·         William Roupell (1831-1909)
·         William Wynne Ryland (c. 1738 - 1783)
·         Michael Sabo
·         Alexander Howland Smith (fl. 1886)
·         Robert Spring (1813-1876)
·         Adolf Ludvig Stierneld (1755-1835)
·         Brita Tott (fl. 1498)
·         Lucio Urtubia (born 1931)
·         Denis Vrain-Lucas (1818-1880)
·         Henry Woodhouse (1884-1970)
Literary forgers
·         Annio da Viterbo (c. 1432 - 1502)
·         Sir Edmund Backhouse, 2nd Baronet (1873-1944)
·         Adémar de Chabannes (c. 988 – 1034)
·         Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770)
·         Mark Hofmann (born 1954) — forger of several documents relating to the Latter Day Saint movement, including the Salamander letter
·         William Henry Ireland (1775-1835) — author of the Ireland Shakespeare forgeries and the pseudepigraphical play Vortigern and Rowena
·         Clifford Irving (born 1930)
·         William Lauder (c. 1680 - 1771)
·         James Macpherson (1736-1796) — the supposed "translator" of the Ossianic poems
·         Iolo Morganwg (1747-1826)
·         François Nodot (c. 1650 - 1710)
·         Francesco Maria Pratilli (1689–1763)
·         Constantine Simonides (1820–1867)
·         Clotilde de Surville (fl. 1421)
·         Charles Weisberg (died 1945)
Musical forgers
·         Henri Casadesus (1879-1947)
·         Marius Casadesus (1892-1981) — creator of the Adélaïde Concerto
·         François-Joseph Fétis (1784-1871)
·         Fritz Kreisler (1875-1962)
·         Winfried Michel (born 1948)
·         David Popper (1843-1913)
·         Roman Turovsky-Savchuk (born 1961)
·         Vladimir Vavilov (1925-1973)
Signature forgers
·         Henry Fauntleroy (1784-1824)
·         James Townsend Saward (1799 - after 1857)
Stamp forgers
·         A. Alisaffi
·         Bernhardt Assmus (c. 1856 - after 1892)
·         Rainer Blüm
·         Delandre (1883-1923)
·         Georges Fouré (1848-1902)
·         François Fournier (1846-1917)
·         Sigmund Friedl (1851-1914)
·         Julius Goldner (c. 1841 - 1898)
·         N. Imperato
·         Madame Joseph (c. 1900 - after 1945)
·         Louis-Henri Mercier (fl. 1890)
·         Erasmo Oneglia (1853-1934)
·         Adolph Otto (fl. 1870)
·         Angelo Panelli (c. 1887 – c. 1967)
·         Oswald Schroeder (died c. 1920)
·         Lucian Smeets
·         Jean de Sperati (1884-1957)
·         Philip Spiro
·         Béla Székula (1881–1966)
·         Raoul de Thuin (1890–1975)
·         Harold Treherne (c. 1884 - after 1908)
·         The Art of the Faker — a book about art forgery by Frank Arnau
·         The Counterfeiters — a movie inspired by the Nazi counterfeiting scheme, Operation Bernhard
·         F for Fake — an Orson Welles documentary about art forger Elmyr de Hory
·         Fake Britain — a BBC television series about counterfeiting and its effects on consumers
·         Fake: Forgery, Lies, & eBay — a memoir by art forger Kenneth Walton
·         Fake or Fortune? — a BBC television series which examines the provenance of notable artworks
·         Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology — a book by Kenneth L. Feder on the topic of pseudoarcheology
·         Pierre Grassou — a novel by Honoré de Balzac about a fictional art forger
·         Selling Hitler — an ITV drama-documentary about the Hitler Diaries
External links
·         Forgery and Fakes: Overview, Caslon Analytics.
·         Sources of information on art forgery, Museum Security Network